Translated by Victor Alexander ©2003 (posted April 18, 2003)
1. Two years later, Pharaoh dreamt that he stood at a river,
2. And, behold, from the river there came up seven bulls, beautiful in appearance and fat in the flesh, and they grazed in the meadow.
3. And, behold, another seven bulls came up from the river, ugly in appearance and skinny, at the edge of the river.
4. And the seven bulls that were ugly in appearance and skinny in the flesh ate the bulls that were beautiful in appearance and fat in the flesh, and the Pharaoh suddenly awoke from his dream.
5. Then he fell asleep and dreamt a second time and, behold, seven ears of grain shot up from one stalk, full of grain and well-formed.
6. And, behold, seven ears of wheat, that were withered and blighted by the cold winds, grew after them.
7. And the seven withered ones ate the seven ears of wheat that were full and fat with grain, and there awoke the Pharaoh and, behold, it was a dream.
8. And it was early in the morning and Pharaoh's spirit was in turmoil, so he sent out for all the magicians and all the wise men of Egypt, and the Pharaoh declared to them his dreams and there was no man who could interpret them to the Pharaoh.
9. And the chief wine server spoke before the Pharaoh and said, "I am remembering my bad behavior on this day.
10. "The Pharaoh was angry at his servants and threw them in prison by the commander of the armies, to me and the chief baker.
11. "And I saw a dream in the night, I one and he another one, and a man interpreted each of our dreams accordingly.
12. "He was a young Hebrew who was with us there, the servant of the commander of the armies, and we declared our dreams to him and he interpreted them each according to his dream he did interpret.
13. "And as he interpreted them to us, that is how it turned out; I was returned to my routine and the other was crucified."
14. And the Pharaoh sent for Joseph and called him. They rushed him from the cell. He shaved and changed his clothes and entered before the Pharaoh.
15. And the Pharaoh spoke to Joseph. And the Pharaoh said, "I dreamt a dream that could not be interpreted, and I heard about you, that you listen to a dream and interpret it."
16. Joseph replied and said to the Pharaoh, "Why, do you expect that in spite of God I can give the Pharaoh a pacifying interpretation?"
17. And the Pharaoh said to Joseph, "In my dream, behold, I stood at the edge of the river.
18. "And, behold, from the river there arose seven bulls, fat in the flesh and beautiful in appearance, and they grazed in the meadow.
19. "And, behold, seven other bulls rose up after them, famished and ugly in appearance and their flesh was really unhealthy. And you never saw ugly ones like that in all the land of Egypt.
20. "And the skinny and ugly bulls ate the seven fat bulls before them.
21. "And they entered inside them, but one would not know that they entered inside them, because they appeared even worse than before, and then I awoke.
22. "And again I saw in my dream and, behold, seven wheat ears arose and shot up out of one stalk, full of grain and good.
23. "And, behold, seven ears of wheat, withered and blighted by the cold winds grew out after them.
24. "And the withered wheat ears swallowed the seven good wheat ears, and I told it to the magicians, but I have not had any sleep over it."
25. And Joseph said to the Pharaoh, "Pharaoh's dream is one; what God intends has been revealed to the Pharaoh.
26. "The seven good bulls are these seven years and the seven good ears of wheat are the same seven years.
27. "And the seven ugly and famished bulls, that rose after them, are seven years also, and the seven ears of wheat, that are withered and blighted by the cold winds, will become the seven years of famine.
28. "These events that I foretold, these that God shall do, I have revealed them to the Pharaoh.
29. "Behold, there will come seven years when there will be satiety in the land of Egypt.
30. "And there will follow seven years of famine after them, and all that abundance that was in the land of Egypt will be wiped out and hunger will devastate the land.
31. "And no one will know what satiety is in the land, because the hunger that will follow will be so widespread.
32. "And the dream was repeated to the Pharaoh a second time, to demonstrate that the events are well-intended by God and that God will hasten to bring them about.
33. "Now the Pharaoh will see to it that a wise and educated man is appointed over the land of Egypt.
34. "And the Pharaoh shall by and by appoint governors over the land of Egypt and they shall set aside a fifth of the land of Egypt during the years of abundance.
35. "And they shall gather all the excess of these good years that are coming, and they shall retain the excess under the hand of Pharaoh; they shall guard it in the country warehouses.
36. "And the excess will protect the land in the seven years of famine that will follow in the land of Egypt, and so the land will not be devastated by the famine."
37. And in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of his servants, the interpretation sounded beautiful.
38. And the Pharaoh said to his servants, "Can there be found a man like this with the spirit of God in him?"
39. And the Pharaoh said to Joseph, "After God declared all this through you, there is no one more wise and well-informed like you.
40. "You shall be the overseer of my household, and upon the words from your mouth all justice for my people shall be served, and with you alone I shall share the throne."*
41. And the Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Look, I have given you authority over all of Egypt."
42. And the Pharaoh took off the ring from his hand and placed it on Joseph's hand, he arrayed him in gold-threaded linens, and he cast the royal emblem around his neck,
43. And he placed him in his other chariot and declared him Father and gave him authority over all the land of Egypt.
44. And the Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I, Pharaoh, command that no human shall raise his hand over you or go against you* in all the land of Egypt.
45. And the Pharaoh called the name of Joseph "Sup'n'th Pu'u-neh,* or the Sapient Seer, and he gave him for a wife As-yath the daughter of Potiphor, the king priest of Awon. And Joseph went forth as appointed over all the land of Egypt.
46. And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before the Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and he went out from the presence of the Pharaoh and traversed the entire land of Egypt.
47. And he saved the yield of the land in the seven years of satiety in sheaves.
48. And he kept all the excess of the seven years of satiety that was gathered in the land of Egypt, and he put the excess in country barns, the excess of the fields of the villages and the surrounding areas; he kept everything inside.
49. Joseph kept the excess of the yields until they were like the sands of the sea, until the size of their number could not be counted.
50. And to Joseph were born two sons, until the years of the famine arrived, these to which As-yath, the daughter of Potiphar the king priest of Awon, gave birth for him.
51. And Joseph called the name of his son, his heir, Mennesheh,* because God forgave* me all my misdeeds and those of my father's household.
52. And the name of the other one he called Aprim, because God has given me abundance in the land of my subjugation.
53. And the seven years of satiety that occurred in the land of Egypt ended.
54. And there began the seven years of famine that Joseph spoke of and there was hunger in all the lands and there was no bread in all the land of Egypt.
55. And when all the land of Egypt was wracked with famine and the people suddenly turned to the Pharaoh for bread, the Pharaoh told all the Egyptians, "Go to Joseph and do what he tells you."
56. And as the famine had spread over all the land, Joseph opened the stores and sold to the Egyptians.
57. And the famine had taken hold of the land of Egypt and all the world came to negotiate with Joseph, because the famine had taken hold over the entire land of Egypt.
*41:40 NB! The Scripture prophesied over Jesus sharing the throne with the Father. Distorted by Western translators to reduce the precedence of the passage.
*41:44 Lit. Ar. expression: "Raise a leg against you."
*41:45 Lit. Aramaic: Clear-Revealer-of-the-Hidden" or "With-Clarity-Explainer."
*41:51.1 Lit. Ar. name retained: "Manasseh," in English language Bibles, generally translated as God has made me forget my suffering at the hands of my family. Here is an example when using the Hebrew-Arabic-Greek leads to, first, a wrong transliteration of the name, then, to a wrong translation.
*41:51.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Forgotted (sic) me," or "forgot me" in the sense of "forgave me."
Genesis 421. And Jacob saw that there was excess grain in Egypt, so Jacob said to his sons, "Do not panic.*
2. "Behold, I have heard that there is plenty of grain in Egypt, penetrate in there and carry out some from there; we shall live and not die."
3. And ten of Joseph's brothers went down to negotiate for the plentiful grain from Egypt.
4. However, Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph's brother together with his brothers, because Jacob said to himself, "So as the devil may not harm him."
5. And the sons of Israel came to acquire grain together with the others who went, because the famine had devastated the land of Canaan also.
6. And Joseph was the authority on earth and he was the man to deal with* for all the people of the earth, and so the brothers of Joseph came and worshipped him, prostrate over the earth, with their faces down.
7. And Joseph saw his brothers and he recognized them, and he interrogated them and said, "Where are you from?" And they said to him, "We come from the land of Canaan to buy the excess grain."
8. Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him.
9. And Joseph remembered the dream that he dreamt, and he said to them, "You are spies, come to study the lay of the land."
10. And they said, "No, our lord, your servants have come to buy some excess grain.
11. "We are all the children of one man and we are righteous and your servants cannot be spies."
12. But Joseph said that, "It is not so, you came to see the lay of the land."
13. And they said to him, "We are twelve brothers, your servants, the children of one man from the land of Canaan, and the little one is with our father this very day, and one is gone."
14. Joseph said to them, "Just what I said to you, you are spied.
15. "This is why you were arrested; as the Pharaoh lives, you will not leave here unless your youngest brother comes here.
16. "Send someone to bring your brother and you will remain here as prisoners until your words have been confirmed, if you speak truly, and if not, as the Pharaoh lives, you are spies."
17. And he threw them in jail* for three days.
18. And Joseph told them on the third day, "Do this and live; I have the fear of God.
19. "If you are righteous, let one of your brothers remain in your jail and the rest of you go and carry from the excess grain to feed the hunger in your household.
20. "And bring me your youngest brother; I will believe in your words and you will not die;" and they agreed to do this.
21. For one man said to his brother, "Truly we are responsible for what happened to our brother, who regarded us through the torment of his soul, as he sought us and we did not hear him; that is why all this tribulation befell us."
22. Then Reuel* replied and told them, "Did I not tell you, do not sin against the boy, but you listened not? And, behold, even his blood is required of us."
23. However, they did not know that Joseph heard what they said, because the translator was standing among them.
24. And he turned away from them and cried, then he returned to them and spoke with them, and he pulled Simeon* away from them and he bound him before their eyes.*
25. Then Joseph ordered their vessels be filled with the excess grain and "return every man's money to their sacks and give them more for the journey back," and this they did for them.
26. And they loaded their excess grain on their donkeys and left.
27. And one of them opened his sack in order to feed his donkey in the stall and he saw that his money was placed in his sack as he opened it.
28. And he said to his brother, "My money has been returned, and, behold, here it is in the opening of my load;" and their hearts quaked, and every man was at his wits end wondering about their brother, and they said, "What is this that God has done for us?"
29. And they came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan, and they told* him everything that happened to them, saying,
30. "The man who is the lord of the land spoke to us severely, thinking us to be spies,
31. "And we told him that we are innocent* men and that there are no spies among us.*
32. "We are twelve brothers, the sons of one father, only one of us is gone and the youngest one is with our father presently* in the land of Canaan.
33. "And the man who is the lord of the land said to us, 'By this I will know that you are innocent, leave one of your brothers with me and take the excess for your home and go.
34. "'And bring your youngest brother, then I will know that you are not spies and that you are innocent, and I will give you back your brother and you will be able to do business in the land.'"
35. And as they emptied their sacks of grain, behold, each man's money purse was in the opening of their loads, and both they and their father saw the purses of money, and they were afraid.
36. And their father Jacob said to them, "You are tormenting me, Joseph is gone, Simeon is gone and now you want to carry off Benjamin; I'll end up losing all of them."
37. Reuel said to his father, "You can take* my two sons if I do not bring him back to you; surrender him to me and I will bring him back."
38. And he told them, "My son is not going down with you, because his brother died and he is all that is left for his mother, and some evil will surely overtake him on the road that you will travel, and you will reduce my old age to dealing with the demonic creatures of sheol."
*42:1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Succumb."
*42:6 Lit. Ar. id.: "Negotiate."
*42:17 Lit. Aramaic: "House of troublemakers."
*42:22 Lit. Aramaic name retained: "Reuben," in English.
*42:24.1 In Aramaic: "Shimmun" or "Simon."
*42:24.2 Lit. Ar. expression: (Double entendre) "He bound their eyes."
*42:29 Lit. Ar. id.: "Showed."
*42:31.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Righteous."
*42:31.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Could not be spies."
*42:32 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "On this day."
*42:37 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Put an end to."
Genesis 431. And the famine took hold of the land.
2. And as the excess grain that they brought from Egypt was all eaten up, Jacob said to them, "Go down and bring a little more of the excess grain."
3. Judah said to them, "The man made us into witnesses* when he said to us that you will not see my face unless you bring your brother with you.
4. "If you send our brother with us, we will go down and bring back the excess grain,
5. "But if you will not send him, we will not go down, because the man did tell us that you shall not see my face, except if your brother is with you."
6. Israel their father said to them, "Why did you bring this evil upon me and tell the man you had a brother?"
7. And they said to him, "The man asked about us honestly,* and about the members of our household, and he said, 'Is your father still alive and do you have a brother, so show him to me, as you tell me these words' -- how should we know that he was going to say bring your brother?"
8. Judah said to his father Israel, "Send the boy with us; we will get up and go, and we will live and not die, us and you too, and everything we hold dear.*
9. "I will be personally responsible for him, you can request him from my very hand; if I do not bring him back to you and stand him before you, let me be a sinner against my father all my days.
10. "And if I am late, I will even stay there two years if I have to."
11. And Israel their father said to them, "If this is what you are supposed to do, put into your vessels from the earth's bounty and take it to the man as an offering, a small amount of oats and honey, herbs and spices, nuts and condiments.
12. "And take sufficient money in your hands, and the money that was returned in the opening of your loads, take that in your hands also, so as it is not made into an issue.
13. "So go and fetch your brother and return to the man.
14. "And Almighty Eil* shall show you mercy before the man and will send back your other brother together with Benjamin, and I will agonize over it like I always agonize."
15. And the men took their offerings, sufficient money in their hands, and they fetched Benjamin and took him along also; they rose and went down to Egypt and stood before Joseph.
16. And when Joseph saw that Benjamin was with them, he said to his caretaker, "Let the men enter my house and prepare a sumptuous feast,* because it is with me these men shall eat at noon."
17. And the servant did according to what Joseph had said and allowed the men into Joseph's house.
18. And they were frightened as they were ushered into the house of Joseph. And they said, "This is because of the money that was returned in our sacks the first time they brought us in; they are planning to lord it over us and hang on to us and make us into servants and donkeys, too."
19. And they approached Joseph's caretaker and they spoke to him in the doorway.
20. And they said to him, "We beg you, lord, we came the first time to bring some of the excess grain.
21. "And when we went to the stalls [to feed the donkeys,] behold, we found each man's money in the opening of his load -- we have brought back this money exactly according to its weight in our hands.
22. "Furthermore, we have brought even more money in our hands to bring back the excess grain -- we do not know who placed the money in the opening of our loads."
23. He said to them, "Stop, your God, the God of your father, placed a gift into your loads, and your money has returned to me" -- and [at that moment] Simeon came out to them.
24. And the caretaker allowed the men to enter into Joseph's [home,] and he gave them water to wash their feet and a sack of grain for their animals to eat.*
25. And the men brought out their best offerings, when Joseph was to come at noon, because they heard that they were going to eat bread there.
26. And Joseph entered the house and they gave him the offerings that they brought in their hands to the house, and they bowed down to the ground in his worship.
27. And he greeted them with peace* and said to them, "Is your old father well,* whom you told me about? Is he still alive?"
28. And they said, "He is well your servant, our father." And they told him, "He is still alive." And they stood up and bowed again.
29. And Joseph raised his eyes and saw Benjamin his brother, the son of his own mother, and he said to them, "Is this your little brother that you told me about?" And he said, "God shall be merciful to you, my son."*
30. And Joseph rushed out because he could not hide his compassion for his brother and he wanted to cry, so he went quickly to another chamber and cried there.
31. And he washed his face, composed himself and went out to them. He then told them to place the bread before them.
32. So they served him separately and them separately, and the Egyptians who ate with them separately, because Egyptians could not eat bread together with the Hebrew people, for that is considered defiling to the Egyptians.
33. And they sat eating in front of him, the elder according to his seniority,* and the young one according to his youth,* and they were amazed as each man regarded his companion.
34. And they took portions from Joseph's portions that he extended to them; however, he gave more to Benjamin than to all of them, five times more, and they drank and got drunk with him.
*43:3 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "The testimony he testified by us."
*43:7 Lit. Ar. expression: "Askingly asked the man."
*43:8 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "And our also what we attach weight to..."
*43:14 Lit. Aramaic: "Eil-Shaddai."
*43:16 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Slaughter the slaughterings."
*43:24 Lit. Ar. expression: "Threw a sack to their animals."
*43:27 Lit. Ar. expression: "Asked for their shalom."
*43:27 Lit. Ar. expression: "At peace he your father?"
*43:29 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression retained: "Don't worry, God will take care of you." Joseph is recalling his own betrayal by his brothers.
*43:33.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "The elder according to his eldership."
*43:33.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "The small one according to his smallness."
Genesis 441. And he ordered his caretaker, saying, "Fill the men's load with the excess grain, however much they can carry, and he had each one's money* placed in the opening of their sacks.
2. "And place my silver chalice in the opening of the youngest one's load, together with the money from his hand, and the servant did as Joseph commanded.*
3. And as it was dawn breaking, the men commenced to go together with their donkeys.
4. But before they left the countryside, before they had gone very far, Joseph said to his caretaker, "Go and chase after the men and bring them back and tell them, 'Why did you repay kindness with evil?
5. "'Behold, the silver chalice that my lord drinks from and even solace he finds it -- you should be ashamed of what you did.'"
6. And they brought them back and told them such words.
7. They said to the caretaker, "Our lord should not say such words; on the contrary, how could your servants respond in such a manner?
8. "Behold, the money that we found in the opening of our sacks, we returned it from the land of Canaan; how could we have stolen anything from the house of your lord, be it gold or silver?
9. "Whoever of your servants that may have possession of it, let him die, and let us become slaves to your lord."
10. And the caretaker said to them, "Also now let it be according to your own words; whoever is found with it will become my slave and you will go free."*
11. And so they hurried and lowered their loads to the ground, as each man opened his sack.
12. And he searched them solemnly, starting from the biggest and ending with the youngest of them, and he found the silver chalice in Benjamin's sack.
13. And they tore their garments and each man took his donkey and returned to the country.
14. And Judah and his brothers entered Joseph's house and he was still there and they fell on the ground before him.
15. Joseph said to them, "What is this that you did to me? Do you not know that a man like me needs his solace?"
16. And Judah said, "What shall I tell my lord? What shall I say? How can I be reprieved?* Before God had found the sins of your servants, behold, we were already your servants, we were thus also, even the one in whose hands was discovered the silver chalice."
17. He said to them, "Perish the thought that I should do this; the man with whom the chalice was found, he will be my servant and the rest of you go up to your father in peace."
18. And Judah came near him and said, "I beg you, my lord, let your servant speak the truth before you,* my lord, please do not let your servant provoke your anger, because you are like the Pharaoh.
19. "My lord asked his servants and said, 'Do you have a father or a brother?'
20. "And we said to my lord, 'We have an old father and he has a young son for his old age and his brother died, and he is all that is left for his mother, and his father loves him dearly.'
21. "And you said to your servants, 'Bring him down to me, let me lay my eyes on him.'*
22. "And we said to my lord, 'The boy cannot leave his father, and if he left his father the latter will die.'
23. "And you said to your servants, 'If your brother does not bring down you small brother with you, you will not be allowed to see my face.'
24. "And when we went to your servant, our father, and we presented him with my lord's explanation,
25. "Your servant, our father, said to us, 'Go back and bring us a little of the excess grain.'
26. "And we said to our father, 'We cannot go down, only if we take our young brother with us can we go down, because we cannot see the face of the man unless our young brother is with us.'
27. "And your servant, our father, said to us, 'You know that my wife gave birth to two children for me,
28. "And one of them went away from me and you said that he was killed,* and I have not seen him yet.
29. "And you will also fetch this one and take him away from me and some ill fate will befall him and you will lower me down to sheol in my old age.'
30. "And now when I go to your servant, our father, and the boy is not with us -- and his dear soul is like his own soul,
31. "And when he sees that there is no boy with us, he will die, and we shall send down your servant, our father, in his old age, into sheol's demonic [world.]
32. "Because your servant plucked away the boy from his father and I said to him that if I do not bring him back to you, I will have sinned against my father all my days.
33. "Now take your servant in place of the boy, a slave to my lord, and let the boy go up with his brothers.
34. "Because how can I go up to my father and the boy is not with me; I cannot do this evil to my father."
*44:1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Their money's money."
*44:2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Acted," or "manifested."
*44:10 Lit. Ar. id.: "Innocently."
*44:15 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Consolingly consoled."
*44:16 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "By what I be innocent?"
*44:18 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Speak the manifestation."
*44:21 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Consecrate my eyes on him."
*44:28 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Killed by killing."
*44:34 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Because I cannot bear to see this evil that will overwhelm my father."