Translated by Victor Alexander ©2002 (posted April 4, 2002)
Genesis 171. And Abram reached the age of ninety-nine and the Lord revealed Himself to Abram and said to him, "I am* the Eil, the Almighty.* Worship before me and be without fault.
2. "And I shall make my covenant* between me and for you, and I shall enrich you exceedingly."*
3. And Abram fell on his face, and God spoke and commanded him.
4. "Behold, I shall make my covenant* with you, and you shall become the father of many nations.
5. "Your name will not be called again Abram. Except your name shall be Abraham, because I give you as father to many nations.
6. "And I shall make you plentiful and increase your numbers well.* And I shall give you to the nations and there will emerge kings from your progeny.*
7. "And I shall make my covenant with you,* and with your offspring in their centuries until the Resurrection unto eternal life,* and I shall be your God and [the God] of your offspring after you.
8. "And I shall give you and your offspring the land where you reside, all the land of Canaan, until the inheritance of life eternal,* and I shall be to them their God."
9. And God said to Abraham, "You, uphold my covenant,* you and your offspring after you, in their centuries.
10. "This is my covenant that you will uphold between me and you, that you shall circumcise every male.
11. "And that you will circumcise the flesh of your uncircumcision,* and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and you all.
12. "And after eight days, you shall circumcise every male of yours, according to their lineage,* who are born at home and bought with money, from all the sons of foreigners who were not of your seed.
13. "You must circumcise,* the babies of your household and those purchased with money and my covenant shall be in your flesh to the resurrection of life eternal.
14. "And the uncircumcised male whose flesh of banishment* is not circumcised, that soul is lost from its people; you have then voided my covenant."
15. And God said to Abraham, "Sarai, your wife, her name shall not be called Sarai, because her name is Sarah.
16. "And I bless her and also I shall give you a son from her, and I shall bless him and he shall be the progenitor of nations, and kings of the nations shall be from him."
17. And Abraham fell on his face and laughed, and he said in his heart, "After a hundred years a son is born? And Sarah, after ninety years will bear a child?"
18. And Abraham said to God, "Ishmael then will get married and live according to your will."*
19. And God said to Abraham, "Truly, your wife Sarah will give birth to a child for you, and you shall call him Isaac, and I shall make my covenant* with him to [the end of] the universe, and with his offspring after him.
20. "And as for Ishmael, [whose name signifies] your obedience,* behold, I shall bless him and enrich him, and I shall make him a great man indeed,* he shall bring forth twelve great rulers, and they shall provide him with a great nation.
21. "And my covenant I shall make with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear for you, in this lifetime,* in another year."
22. And as He concluded speaking to him, God went up from Abraham.
23. And Abraham fetched Ishmael, his son, and all the boys of his household and all those who were bought with his money, all the male men of the house of Abraham, and he circumcised the flesh of their banishment,* on that very day, just as God had told him to do.
24. And Abraham was ninety-nine years when he circumcised the flesh of his banishment.*
25. And Ishmael, his son, was thirteen years when he circumcised the flesh of his banishment.
26. On that very day, Abraham circumcised his son Ishmael,
27. And all the men in his household, born in his house and bought with his money, and he also circumcised the sons of the foreigners who were with him.
*17:1.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "I am I."
*17.1.2 Lit. Ar. title: "Eil Shaddai."
*17:2.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Stance."
*17:2.2 Lit. Ar. figure of speech: "Goodly, goodly."
*17:4 Lit. Ar. id.: "Stance."
*17:6.1 Lit. Ar. figure of speech: "Goodly, goodly."
*17:6.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Kings will emerge from your back."
*17:7.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Stand my stance between me and to you."
*17:7.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "To the rising of the to [the end of] the universe."
*17:8 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "... to the inheritance of the to [the end of] the universe."
*17:9 Lit. Ar. expression: "Guard my stance."
*17:11 Lit. Ar. id.: "Banishment."
*17:12 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Centuries."
*17:13 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Circumcise the circumcision."
*17:14 Lit. Ar. id.: "Uncircumcision."
*17:18 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Live before you."
*17:19 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Stand my stance."
*17:20.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And over Ishmael, Your-Obedience..."
*17:20.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Goodly, goodly."
*17:21 Lit. Ar. expression: "For this season."
*17:23 Lit. Ar. id.: "Uncircumcision."
*17:24 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Flesh of uncircumcision."
Genesis 181. And the Lord revealed Himself to him while he was at the Chestnut of Mamre, as he sat in the entrance of his abode, when the Day became hot.
2. And he raised his eyes and saw, behold, three men standing above from where he was, and he saw them and ran from the entrance of his abode to meet them, and he fell on his face on the ground in their worship.
3. And the Lord said, "If you can find mercy in your eyes [for them,] do not neglect your service.*
4. "Draw a little water and wash their feet, [saying,] set yourselves down under the tree for some food.
5. "And consecrate the pieces of bread to sustain* your hearts, and then you will commence your passage, because this is why they came across their servant and said, this we do as You have commanded."
6. And Abraham hurried up and ran home to Sarah, and he said, "Quickly, fill three buckets of finely ground flour, kneed it and bake it in the earthen oven."
7. And Abraham ran to the cattle, and he consecrated a well fatted calf and gave it to a boy and ordered to have it prepared.
8. And he consecrated the butter, the milk and the calf that was prepared, and set it all before them, and he stood above* them as they ate.
9. And they said to him, "Where is that Sarah, your wife?" And he said, "Behold, here at home."
10. And he told him. "She will truly return to you,* as she is alive in this season, and Sarah your wife shall conceive a son," and Sarah was listening at the door of the abode, she was behind it.
11. Abraham and Sarah were old and aged in years,* and Sarah was beyond the age of child bearing women.*
12. And Sarah laughed in her heart and said, "After being all worn out, I will become young again, but will my husband remain an old man?"*
13. And the Lord said to Abraham, "Why did Sarah laugh and say, 'Truly, could I bear a child in my old age?'
14. "Is that too great a feat for the Lord? That she return to you in this season revitalized* and a son is born to your wife Sarah?"
15. And Sarah blasphemed and said, "I did not laugh,* it is because I was scared;" and He said, "Do not laugh henceforth."
16. And the men got up from there and set their gaze upon Sodom,* and Abraham went out with them to see them off.
17. And the Lord said, "How could I hide from my servant Abraham what I am about to do?
18. "And Abraham is to be the progenitor of a great multitude and through whom all the nations of the world shall be blessed.
19. "For I know him, he will order the sons and the daughters of his household after him to guard the ways of the Lord to do justice and righteousness, because what the Lord said regarding Abraham will be brought to fruition."
20. And the Lord said, "The outrage of Sodom and Gomorrah has come to my attention,* and their sins have sunk low.*
21. "I shall go see if the outrage that was brought to my attention is what they actually do, and if not I will know."
22. And the men turned back from there and went to Sodom. And Abraham was still standing before the Lord.
23. And Abraham drew near and said, "Do you distinguish in your anger between the righteous and the sinner,* as you send them to oblivion?
24. "If there are fifty righteous individuals in a village, with the same wrath will you annihilate them and will you not even spare the country for the sake of fifty righteous ones?
25. "Heaven forbid* that you should resolve this by killing the righteous together with the unrighteous,* and that the righteous should be regarded as the unrighteous. Heaven forbid, that the judge of the whole earth should perform such a judgment."
26. And the Lord said, "If there can be found in Sodom fifty righteous individuals living in town, I will forgive all the country for their sake."
27. And Abraham replied and said, "Behold, I have been allowed to speak before the Lord and yet I am but dust and ashes!
28. "And if there are five less righteous ones than fifty, will you destroy the entire town because of the five?" And He said, "No, I will not destroy it if I find there forty-five."
29. And again Abraham added, saying to Him, "And if there are found forty?" And He said, "I will not destroy it if I find there forty."
30. And he said, "I hope I am not annoying the Lord if I ask again, and what if thirty?" And He said, "I will not destroy it if there are thirty."
31. And he said, "Behold, I have been allowed to speak before the Lord, and what if there are found twenty?" And He said, "I will not destroy it if I find twenty."
32. And he said, "Let me not annoy you, Lord, if this one time, and what if there are ten?" And He said, "I will not destroy it if there are ten."*
33. And the Lord went away as He concluded His conversation with Abraham, and Abraham returned to his country.
*18:3 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Transgress your servant."
*18:5 Lit. Ar. expression: "And prop up your hearts."
*18:8 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression retained: "He waited on them," or "served them."
*18:10 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Return the return."
*18:11.1 Lit. Ar. expression: "Entered upon years."
*18:11.2 Lit. Ar. expression: "Was past the way of women."
*18:12 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "And my master old?"
*18:14 Lit. Ar. id.: "Alive."
*18:16 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Looked upon the faces of Sodom."
*18:20.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Here entered before me."
*18:20.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Well-seeped."
*18:23 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "With one anger do You oblivionate the righteous with the sinners?"
*18:25.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "It's anathema for you to ..."
*18:25.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Indebted."
*18:32 Possibly these last passages imply that Abraham was already senile.
Genesis 191. And there came two angels to Sodom in the evening and Lot's place was at the entrance to Sodom,* and Lot saw them and went out to meet them on the road, and he fell on his face and worshipped them.
2. And he said, "I beg you, my lords, head for the house of your servant and I will accommodate you and wash your feet and tomorrow you can be on your way; and they said, "No, we will stay at the inn."*
3. And Lot insisted that they stay with him,* so they came and entered his house, and he brought them wine* baked bread for them [in the earthen oven,] and they ate.
4. And they had not fallen asleep before the townsmen, the people of Sodom, had already encircled the house, from the young to the old, and all the people of their ilk.
5. And they called out to Lot and told him, "Where are those men who came to you in the night? Bring them out, let us get to know them."
6. And Lot went out the door to them and [those inside] closed the door behind him.
7. And Lot told them, "Do not let it bother you, brethren.
8. "Behold, I have two children that have not known a man, I will let them go out to meet you, and so you can do to them what is proper in your eyes, only do not do anything to these men, because they have entered under the shelter of my abode."
9. And they screamed, "Move aside."* And they said, "You are the one who settled among us and, behold, you dare judge us?* Now, we will treat you worse than them."* And Lot wrestled with the men fiercely and they nearly broke down the door.
10. And the men inside extended their hands and pulled Lot back into the house and they secured the door.
11. And the men outside the house were blinded by the light rays, from the small to the great, and they were no longer able to find the door.
12. And the men said to Lot, "Why did you do this? Your sons-in-law, your daughters and everyone you have in the house -- take them out of this country.
13. "Because we are going to destroy this country, for their outrage has risen before the Lord and the Lord has sent us to destroy them."
14. And Lot went out and spoke with his sons-in-law who had married his daughters, and he told them, "Get up and leave this country, because the Lord will destroy it." But in the eyes of his sons-in-law it seemed like he were humoring them.
15. And as the dawn ascended over the horizon, the angels pressed Lot and told him, "Get up and fetch your wife and your two daughters that you can find, lest they are swallowed up in the sins of the town."
16. Lot finally relented and the angels took him by the hand and his wife by her hand and his two daughters by their hands, because the Lord had spared them, and they got him out and settled him outside of the town.
17. And as they took them out, they said, "Save your soul and do not look back, worrying about not having gotten everything out,* go to the mountains so that you will not perish."
18. And Lot said to them, "I pray, my lords:
19. "Behold, your servant has found mercy in your eyes, and much is the grace that You have shed on me,* to save my soul, but I cannot make it to the mountain,* and if evil should overtake me,* I will surely die,
20. "Behold, this town is near, so let me flee there, behold, it is a small thing, my life will be spared there."*
21. And He told him, "Behold, for your sake,* I will also grant you this favor* that this town you spoke of will not be visited.
22. "Quickly, go out there, because I cannot do anything until you enter it." That is why the name of the town is called Zoar.*
23. The sun rose over the earth and Lot headed for Zoar.
24. And the Lord brought down the fire and brimstone upon Sodom and Gomorrah, from before the presence of the Lord in heaven.
25. And [the fire] lashed out at those cities and all the surrounding areas, and all those who inhabited the land and lived off of the land.
26. And [Lot's] wife turned around, looked behind her and turned into a figure of salt.
27. And in the morning Abraham set off to the land* where he had stood before the Lord.
28. And he gazed upon the face of Sodom and the face of Gomorrah and the face of all the surrounding countryside, and, behold, he saw the smoke rising above the land like the smoke of the fiery pit.
29. And, behold, as God destroyed the cities of wilderness, God recalled Abraham and sent Lot out of the deluge of fire, as He poured down the fire on the towns that Lot had inhabited.
30. So Lot went up from Zoar and settled in the mountains, he together with his two daughters with him, because he felt the suspicion* of the inhabitants there, and thus he settled in the outlying area, he and his two daughters.
31. And the elder said to the younger one, "Behold, our father is getting old and there are no men in the land so that we may go to them, according to the way of the world.*
32. "Come, let us get our father drunk with wine and sleep with him and raise offspring from our father."
33. And they served their father wine in the night until he got drunk, and the elder went in and slept with her father and he did not know of her sleeping with him and her getting up.*
34. And it was on another Day, and the elder said to the younger one, "Behold, I slept in the evening with my father. Let us get him drunk this night also, enter and sleep with him and let us raise offspring from our father."
35. And they got their father drunk that night also, and the young one entered and slept with him, and he did not know of her sleeping with him and her getting up.
36. And both daughters of Lot became pregnant from their father.
37. And the elder gave birth to a son and she named him Moab.* He is the father of the Moabites to this day.*
38. And the younger one, she too gave birth to a son, and she named him Ammon.* He is the father of the Ammonites to this day.*
*19:1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Sitting at the gate."
*19:2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "In the marketplace," or "on the street."
*19:3.1 Lit. Ar. expression: "Pressed them well."
*19:3.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Refreshments."
*19:9.1 Lit. Ar. expression: "Out to one side!"
*19:9.2 Lit. Ar. expression: "Judge the judgment."
*19:9.3 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Do more evil to you than to them."
*19:17 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Rise with all that exists."
*19:19.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Great is the mercy You did with me."
*19:19.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "I cannot exit to the mountain."
*19:19.3 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Evil recalls me."
*19:20 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "My soul will live there."
*19:21.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "On your faces."
*19:21.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Reply."
*19:22 Lit. Ar. name: "Oath."
*19:27 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Country."
*19:30 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "The submission to."
*19:31 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "The way of all the earth."
*19:33 Lit. Ar. expression: "Her sleeping and her rising."
*19:37.1 Lit. Ar. name: "Of my father."
*19:37.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "He became the father of the Moabites to these days."
*19:38.1 Lit. Ar. name: "Son of my uncle."
*19:38.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "He became the father of the Ammonites to these days."
Genesis 201. Abraham had taken off from there and moved to the Southland and had settled as a result of his victory in Beth-Gadar. And so Abraham had lived in Gadar.
2. And Abraham had said regarding Sarah, "She is my sister." Abimelech, the king of Gadar, had sent for Sarah to be fetched.
3. And God had come to Abimelech in a dream and told him, "Behold, you shall die for the sake of the wife you have fetched, because she is the wife of another man."
4. And Abimelech had not made her his bride yet.* So Abimelech said, "Lord, do you kill the holy too?*
5. "He is the one who said she is my sister,* and it was her that said he is my brother also. It was with an honest heart and clean hands that I did this."
6. And God told him in the dream, "I too know that you did this with an honest heart, and it was I who decreed your celibacy that you may not sin against me, that is why I did not allow you to betroth her.
7. "Now return the man's wife, for it is prophesied. And they shall pray over you. And if you do not return her, know this that you shall die the final death, you, together with all yours."
8. And there rose Abimelech at dawn and called his servants, and he spoke all these words in their ears, and they relented in fear, every one among them.
9. And Abimelech called on Abraham and said to him, "What did I do to you? How did I sin against you, that you should accuse me and my kingdom of such sins?* you put me in an impossible situation."*
10. And Abimelech said to Abraham, "What was it that you saw that made you reply in this manner?"
11. And Abraham said, "Because I said, why is there no fear of God in this country, they will kill me for the sake of my wife.
12. "Besides, she is truly my sister, my father's daughter, but not my mother's -- she became my wife.
13. "And so it happened that when God sent me out from my father's house, I told her, do me this favor, whatever country we go to, tell them I am your brother."
14. Abimelech fetched flocks and bulls, servants and maidens, and he gave them to Abraham. And he returned Sarah, his wife.
15. And Abimelech said to Abraham, "Behold, the land before you, settle wherein appeals to your eyes.
16. And to Sarah he said, "Behold, I give a thousand pieces of gold into your hands. And, behold, I also give this to you for the sake of shutting up those who are with me and for your being scandalized."
17. Then Abraham prayed on his knees before God, and God healed Abimelech, his wife and all his maidens, and he was granted offspring.
18. Because the Lord had completely sealed all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, on account of Sarah, the wife of Abraham.
*20:4.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "... had not betrothed her."
*20:4.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Do you kill a holy nation?"
*20:5 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Behold, he said she is my sister."
*20:7 Lit. Ar. expression: "Die the Death."
*20:9.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Many sins."
*20:9.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "You performed the works that are impossible with me."
*20:16 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "To hood the eyes."