Copyrighted by Victor Alexander ©2004 (posted April 27, 2004)
1. "'And these are the laws that you shall consecrate before them.
2. "'When you make someone* a Jewish servant, he shall work for you six years and on the seventh he shall go out a free man from your house.*
3. "'If he has entered alone he shall go out alone, but if he is the husband to a wife, the wife goes out with him.
4. "'And if his lord gives him a wife and she gives birth to sons and daughters for him, the wife and her children will belong to his lord and he goes out alone.
5. "'And if the servant says that I have compassion for my lord, my wife and children; I do not wish to go out free;
6. "'His lord shall offer him the laws and bring him close to the door or the doorstep and pierce his ear [for an earring] and he shall be his servant forever.
7. "'And when a man* sells his daughter to be a [Jewish] servant, she shall not leave like the male servant.
8. "'If she does not find favor in the eyes of her lord and is not designated,* she will be set free;* they have no authority to sell her to a foreign nation, because she was lied to.
9. "'But* if she is designated [as a maiden] to his son, she will be treated according to the Law as one of the girls.
10. "'And if he designated another one after her,* he shall satisfy her needs; she will not be the lesser as for her clothing and her accommodations.
11. "'And if he does not do these three for her, she goes out* gratis without having to pay any money.
12. "'If a man strikes another man and kills him, he shall surely die,*
13. "'But if he does not strike the man and God delivers him into his hands, He shall give him a country where he can run to.*
14. "'And if a man betrays his friend and kills him through treachery, though he may be at the altar he shall be fetched and killed.
15. "'And if someone beats his father or mother, he shall surely die.*
16. "'And if someone kidnaps a soul and sells him or her, and is found, he shall surely die.*
17. "'And if someone assaults his father or mother, he shall surely die.*
18. "'And when two men fight and a man hits his friend with a stone or a whip and he does not die but falls ill;
19. "'If he gets well* and walks in the market* with a cane, his assailant shall be set free,* only he shall pay for his time lost from work* and for his physician.
20. "'And if a man beats his servant with a staff and he dies under his hand, he shall surely be judged.*
21. "'But if he should live a day or two later, he shall not be judged, because that becomes his buyout from servitude.*
22. "'And if two men fight and beat up a wife who is with child and she loses her baby, but there was no argument, [the attacker] shall surely be the loser,* [taking into account the] attack of the wife's husband, and the sentence shall be according to what the laws require.*
23. "'And if there was an argument, a life shall be taken for a life.
24. "'An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, an ear for an ear, a leg for a leg,
25. "'A lashing for a lashing, a punch for a punch, a kick for a kick.
26. "'And if a man strikes his servant in the eye or his maiden in her eye and blinds them, he shall let them go free* in exchange for their eye.
27. "'And if he knocks out* his servant's tooth or his maiden's tooth, he shall let them go free in exchange for their teeth.
28. "'And if a bull gores* a man or a woman and they die, the bull shall be stoned to death,* and its flesh shall not be eaten, and the bull's owner will be held innocent.
29. "'But if a bull is wild and it was known from previous experience* and its owner was informed about it and he did not keep it under guard* and the bull killed a man or his wife, the bull shall be stoned and its owner shall die.
30. "'And if they demand money from him,* he shall pay whatever they ask for his soul's redemption.
31. "'And if the bull gores a son or a daughter, thirty pieces of silver shall be paid to their lord and the bull is stoned.
32. "'And if a bull gores a servant or a maiden, thirty pieces of silver shall be paid to their lord and the bull shall be stoned.
33. "'And if a man digs* a pit or if a man digs a well and if he does not cover them up, and a bull or a donkey should fall in there,
34. "'The owner of the pit shall pay the owner [of the bull] for it,* and the dead animals shall become his.*
35. "'And if the bull of one man gores the bull of another man and it dies, they shall sell the living bull and divide the money, and also they shall divide the dead one.
36. "'And if it was known that the bull was wild from previous incidents,* and its owner did not guard it, the [living] bull shall be given in exchange for the dead one and the latter shall be given to its owner as well."*
*21:2.1 First time the word "Jew" or "Jewish" is introduced in the Old Testament.
*21.2.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "As you buy a Jewish servant, six years he works for you and by the seventh he exits son of the free from you."
*21:7 Again, from the outside the nation.
*21:8.1 Placed in the service of one of his children.
*21:8.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Redeemed."
*21.9 Lit. Ar. id.: "And."
*21:10 To serve his son or his daughter.
*21:11 Lit. Ar. id.: "Is freed."
*21:12 Lit. Ar. expression: "Killingly he shall be killed."
*21:13 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And if not strike him and God delivers him to his hand, he will make him country to run there."
*21:15 Lit. Ar. expression: "Killingly be killed."
*21:16 Lit. Ar. expression: "Killingly be killed."
*21:17 Lit. Ar. expression: "Killingly be killed."
*21:19.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Rises."
*21:19.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "On the street."
*21:19.3 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Is innocent who beat him."
*21:19.4 Lit. Ar. id.: "His idleness."
*21:20 Lit. Ar. expression: "Judgingly be judged."
*21:21 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Because that becomes his money."
*21:22.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Losingly lose." Or, serious loss.
*21:22.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And given as the laws quote."
*21:26 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Son of the free he leaves him."
*21:27 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Casts out."
*21:28.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "touches."
*21:28.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Stoningly stoned."
*21:29.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "From yesterday and the day before."
*21:29.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And they testified to its owner and he did not guard it."
*21:30 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "If mamounah (Mammon) they throw over him." Or: if he has money and influence.
*21:34.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "The owner of the pit shall pay currency to their owners."
*21:34.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And the dead shall be his."
*21:36.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Given the bull instead of the bull and the dead becomes his."
(Resuming the translation of Exodus (Oct. 11, 2005).
1. If a man steals a bull or a suckling and slaughters them or sells them, he must repay five bulls in place of the bull and four sucklings in place of the suckling.
2. And if a thief is caught after the fact and in the attempt of hiding it he dies, no judgment is rendered.*
3. But if the sun should set on his crime,* there will be judgment, and he must pay;* however, if he has nothing, he shall be sold for [the price] of his theft.
4. And if they search him and find in his possession* what he stole, whether a bull, a donkey or a suckling, and they are still alive, he shall [be asked to] surrender to them two for each one [that he stole.]
5. If a man depletes* his field or vineyard and allows his cattle to graze in another [man's] field, he must pay back from the best of his field or vineyard.
6. If a fire is started and it spreads* to the thorn bushes and lashes upon the sheaves, the stacked grain and bushes, or the entire field -- whoever set the fire shall be held accountable.*
7. And if a man gives his companion money or vessels to guard and they are stolen from the house of his companion;* if the thief has been found, he will pay two for every one [that he stole.]
8. And if the thief is not caught,* the owner of the house shall offer [the case] to the judges; if he did not extend his hand over his companion's assets,*
9. Against whatever he committed a sin, whether a bull, a donkey, a ram, clothing, or whatever assets -- that it can be said, "this is [the stolen article;]" whereas the words of both parties are presented before the judges, and whoever the judges find accountable shall pay two for one to his companion.
10. And if a man gives his companion a donkey, a bull, a ram, or any animal, and it dies or is crippled* or stolen,* and no one saw it,
11. The oaths taken by them [in the name of] the Lord shall [decide the case;] if [the man] did not extend his hand over the assets of his friend and the owner [of the assets] accepted the oaths taken, there is nothing to return.*
12. However, if they were literally stolen* from him, they shall be returned* to their owners.
13. And if they were ruined,* and [the perpetrator] was brought to justice,* they shall not be returned in that state.*
14. And if a man asks his companion for an animal and it dies or is crippled, while its owner is not with him, he must replace it with another.*
15. And if its owner is with it, there is no need to replace it;* and if he is a hired hand, he shall be compensated through his wages.*
16. And if a man flirts with a virgin before engaging her,* and he sleeps with her, she shall be given* to him as a wife.
17. But if her father does not wish to give her to him, he shall pay* for her the price of a virgin.
18. The sorcerer shall not live.
19. And anyone who sleeps with an animal will be killed.*
20. Whoever makes sacrifices out of abject submission goes to oblivion; sacrifices shall be made to the Lord only.*
21. Do not impose on the settlers and do not oppress them, because you were once settlers yourselves in the land of Egypt.
22. And do not impose yourselves on any widow or orphan.
23. And if you impose on them and they pray on their knees before me, I shall heed* their prayers.
24. And my wrath shall overtake you and kill you; your women shall become widows and your children orphans.
25. And if money is contributed among my people for the poor of you nation, let there be no deception about it;* do not charge interest [over it.]
26. And if you receive your companion's clothing to warm you over, you must return them by sunset.
27. For those are all the clothes he has and his only bodily cover -- what shall he sleep in? And if he should pray on his knees before me, I shall hear him, because I am compassionate.
28. Neither vilify the judge, nor curse the head of your nation.
29. Neither skim the first grain from your threshing stone, nor sell off the first vintage of your winepress; the first-born of your children you shall give to me.
30. Likewise you shall do with your bulls and your sheep; for Seven Days let them be with their mother, but on the Eight Day you shall give them to me.
31. Holy men you shall be to me, and the meat that is mauled by wild beasts you shall not eat; throw it to the dogs.
*22:2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And if in the aftermath is found the thief and he devours and dies, it has no oversight."
*22:3.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "On him."
*22:3.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "And pay he will pay."
*22:4 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Find in his hands."
*22:5 Lit. Ar. id.: "Over-eats."
*22:6.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Finds."
*22:6.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Deliveringly delivered."
*22:7 Lit. Ar. id.: "The man."
*22:8 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Appropriated his hand over his companion's works."
*22:10.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Broken."
*22:10.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Carried off," or "raided."
*22:11 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And he shall not deliver."
*22:12.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Stealingly stolen."
*22:12.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Surrendered."
*22:13.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Brokenly broken."
*22:13.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "To witness."
*22:13.3 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Surrendered ruined."
*22:14 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Deliveringly he shall deliver."
*22:15.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "He shall not deliver."
*22:15.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And if he is hired he is enveloped by his hire."
*22:16.1 Lit. Ar. idiom retained: "Without asking for her hand in marriage."
*22:16.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Betrothedly betrothed."
*22:17 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Weigh the currency."
*22:19 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Killingly will be killed."
*22:20 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "That sacrifices to submission oblivionates, exception to the Lord alone."
*22:23 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Listeningly listen."
*22:25 Lit. Ar. id.: "Let it not be like you snake it."
1. Do not spread a lie;* do not extend your hand with one who is responsible* to become for him a false witness.*
2. Do not follow the multitude in vilifying someone, and do not contribute* to the judgment that leads many to their ruin.*
3. And do not contribute to the condemnation* of a poor person.
4. And should you come upon* your enemy's bull or his donkey while they are lost, immediately return* them to him.
5. And when you see your enemy's donkey crushed under its load, and you have no desire to lift it up with him, help him with it just the same.*
6. Do not deny the case* of a poor man because of his guilt.*
7. Distance yourself from falsehood,* and do not kill the innocent and the holy, because I do not hold those responsible as innocent.*
8. Do not pay a bribe, because a bribe blinds the eyes of the judges in their sentence and calls into question* the words of the innocent.
9. Do not oppress the settlers, for you know the soul of the settlers as you were once settlers in the land of Egypt.
10. Six years you shall plant the seed in your land and enjoy its crop,
11. But on the seventh year you shall plough it and leave it, so as the poor of your nation might eat of it and the creatures of the wilderness might eat the rest, and this is what you shall do with your vineyards and olive groves.
12. Six days you do your work, but on the Seventh Day you rest, because you need to rest your bulls and donkeys, and likewise there shall rest the children of your motherland and the inhabitants of your district.
13. Heed everything I have told you and remember not the names of any other powers,* let them not rise in your hearts.
14. Three times a year hold a feast to me.*
15. You shall observe* the Feast of the Unleavened Bread; * Seven Days you shall eat the Unleavened Bread; Seven Days you shall eat the Unleavened Bread as I have commanded you, in the month of sowing,* because it was in the month of sowing that you left Egypt, and I did not wish to see you without bread,*
16. And the Feast of Harvest, the first crop of your passage, that you will plant in the field, and the Feast of Bounty,* at the exit* of the year, when you sweep your produce from the field.
17. Three seasons a year your offerings shall be seen* before your Lord God.
18. Neither offer the curdled blood* with your sacrifices, nor keep the fat from the feast until the morning.
19. The best produce of your land you shall bring into the house of your Lord God, for the goat's kid is not cooked in its mother's milk.
20. Behold, I shall send an angel before you, to guard you on the road and bring you to the land that you shall earn.
21. Be cognizant of him and heed his voice; do not act foolishly before him, lest he should hold you accountable,* for my name is above* him.
22. And if you truly listen* to his voice and do everything he tells you, he* shall hate your haters and restrain your enemies.
23. Because my angel shall go before you and bring you upon* the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hevites and Jebusites, and he* will destroy them.
24. Do not worship their gods, do not build* them or follow their rituals,* except you shall truly smash* them and utterly destroy* their covenants.*
25. Thus you shall work for your Lord God, and he* shall bless your bread and your water and he shall pass the calamities* from your houses.
26. Neither shall a married woman suffer abortion, nor be barren, nor shall the number of your days be diminished.*
27. And he shall send the fear of me before you, which will destroy all the nations that you shall embark upon, and he shall make your enemies bend their necks before you.
28. And he shall send [the feeling of] enmity before you and destroy the Canaanites and Hittites ahead of you.
29. He will not destroy them before you in one year alone, lest the whole land should be engulfed in war and the creatures of the wilderness should overwhelm you.
30. Little by little he shall destroy them from before you, until you will take over* and inherit the land.
31. And he shall pass your clan from the Sea of Soop* to the Sea of the Philistines and from the wilderness to the river, for he shall deliver into your hands the settlers of the land and you shall defeat them.
32. Make no covenant with them or submit to their fears,*
33. Do not allow them to settle in your land; they may end up blaspheming against me,* do not work for their gods, they may end up becoming a stumbling block to you.
*23:1.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Do not pass a heard lie."
*23:1.2 Lit. Ar. idiom retained: "Implicated."
*23:1.3 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Lying witness."
*23:2.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Reply."
*23:2.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Lowering."
*23:3 Lit. Ar. id.: "Judgment."
*23:4.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Encounter."
*23:4.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Returningly return."
*23:5 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And as you see the donkey of your enemy decimated under its burden, and you do not pray to lift it up with him, takingly take it with him."
*23:6 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction retained: "Do not ask for a harsher sentence against a poor man on account of his poverty." Or, "do not hold his poverty against him in deciding his case."
*23:7.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And from the lying word be distancing yourself."
*23:7.2 Lit. Ar. idiom retained: "Because I do not [declare] the innocent as responsible."
*23:8 Lit. Ar. id.: "Turns back."
*23:13 Lit. Ar. id.: "Almightys."
*23:14 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Three seasons make for me yearly holidays."
*23:15.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Guard," or "uphold."
*23:15.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Haba-beh." "Seeding," or "the month of the planting of the seed."
*23:15.3 Lit. Ar. id.: "Emptily," or "wanting."
*23:16.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Fruit gathering."
*23:16.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Opening," or [paradoxically] "end."
*23:17 Lit. Ar. idiom retained: "Your sacrifices shall be offered."
*23:18 Lit. Ar. id.: "The leaven of the blood."
*23:21.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Lest he not forgive your responsibilities."
*23:21.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Over," or "upon."
*23:22.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Listeningly listen."
*23:22.2 Note: Western translators use the first person here as if God is making this statement.
*23:23.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Enter you upon."
*23:23.2 Note: again Western translators substitute the first person singular here to imply that God does the destroying.
*23:24.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Work for."
*23:24.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Do not do according to their works."
*23:24.3 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Scrapingly scrape them."
*23:24.4 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Breakingly break them."
*23:24.5 Lit. Ar. id.: "Standings." "Alliances," or "monuments."
*23:25.1 Reference is still to the angel.
*23:25.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Plagues."
*23:26 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And it will not be that uncoupled and barren and the number of your Days concluded."
*23:30 Lit. Ar. id.: "Grasp."
*23:32 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Do not make a stand to them and to their fears a standing."
*23:33 Lit. Ar. id.: "Lest they sin before me."
1. And he* said to Moses, "Go up to the Lord, you and Aaron, Nadiv and Avihu, and seventy men from the elders of Israel; you shall worship from a distance.
2. Moses alone shall perform the Communion before the Lord; the nation shall not ascend with him."
3. Then Moses came and informed the entire nation what he had encountered: all the matters and all the judgments of the Lord. Then the entire nation cried out in one voice and said, "Everything the Lord has commanded we shall do."
4. And Moses wrote down all the recommendations* of the Lord. He rose in the morning and built an altar at the bottom* of the mountain, together with twelve monuments,* one to each of the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
5. And he sent for the young men and women of Israel, and they went up with holocausts of peace,* and they offered the sacrifices* of peace* to the Lord.
6. Then Moses took half the blood and cast it into the receptacle and half the blood he cast upon the altar.
7. He took the Scripture of the Covenant and read it before the nation, and they said, "Everything the Lord has said we shall listen to and do it."
8. Then Moses took the blood and sprinkled it over the people, and he said, "This is the Blood of the Covenant that the Lord has established with you regarding all these doctrines."
9. There ascended Moses and Aaron, Nadiv and Avihu, and the seventy men from the elders of Israel.
10. And they saw the God of Israel, and [they sat] under his feet like the servants to whom the house is entrusted and like the revered of heaven in purity.
11. And against the elders of Israel He did not extend his hand; they saw God, they ate and they drank.
12. And the Lord said to Moses, "Come up to me on the mountain, and remain there, and bring with you stone tablets, upon which you shall write the Law and the Commandments, for their instruction."
13. And there rose Moses and his deacon Hosea, and Moses went up the Mountain of God.
14. And to the elders, "wait for us here until we return to you," he said. "Behold, Aaron and Hur are with you; whoever has some word* to ask he may offer it before them."
15. Moses, then, ascended to the mountain and the cloud covered him.
16. And the Lord's Glory rested upon Mount Sinai, and for Seven Days the cloud covered it. Then the Lord called Moses on the Seventh Day from the cloud.
17. And he saw the Glory of God as the fire of a holocaust at the top of the mountain, in the eyes of all the children of the House of Israel.
18. Then Moses entered into the cloud and climbed the mountain. For forty days* and forty nights, Moses was on the mountain.
*24:1 Note: the "he" still referring to the angel.
*24:4.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Explanations."
*24:4.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "By the hems."
*24:4.3 Lit. Ar. id.: "Covenants."
*24:5.1 Lit. Ar. id.: Or "submission."
*24:5.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Sacrificed the sacrifices."
*24:5.3 Lit. Ar. id.: Or "adherence."
*24:14 Lit. Ar. id.: "Manifestation."
*24:18 Lit. Ar. id.: "Twelve hour days."
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