Copyrighted by Victor Alexander ©2004 (posted April 3, 2004)
1. And the entire congregation of the Children of Israel took up from the Sein Desert, according to the manifestation of the Lord's mouth, and they settled in Raphedein, and there was no water for the people to drink.
2. And the people fought with Moses, saying to him, "Give us water to drink." Moses said to them, "Why are you fighting with me? Why, are you able to fight with the Lord?"
3. And the people were thirsty for water there and they complained to Moses, "Wherefore did you bring us from Egypt? To kill us and our children and our animals with thirst?"
4. And Moses prayed on his knees before the Lord, saying, "What did I do for these people here that they were nearly about to stone me?"
5. And the Lord said to Moses, "Intercede* before the people and fetch with you some of the priests of Israel, take the staff that you struck the river with in your hand and go,
6. "And, behold, I shall stand there before you at the flint rock in Horels, and you will strike the flint rock and the waters shall emerge out of it and the people will drink." And Moses did thus in demonstration before the Children of Israel's elders.
7. And he called the name of that land Nassah and Meribah, since the Children of Israel fought and since they tested the Lord, saying, "Are you the Lord among us or not?"*
8. And Amalek came to do war with Israel at Raphedein.
9. And Moses said to Jesus,* "Select for yourself some men and go out and do battle with Amalek tomorrow, and, behold, I will stand at the top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand."
10. And Jesus did as Moses instructed him and went out to do battle with Amalek, and Moses, Aaron and Hur went up to the top of the hill.
11. And when Moses raised his hands, Israel held strong and when Moses rested his hands, Amalek held strong.
12. And his hands got tired, so they took a stone and consecrated it under him and he sat on it. And Aaron and Hur held his hands, one from this side and one from that side, and his hands were held up in faith, until the setting of the sun.
13. And Jesus broke Amalek and his people by the edge* of the sword.
14. And the Lord said to Moses, write up this memorial sacrifice in the Scripture and ordain Jesus Barnun, because I shall truly redeem* this memorial sacrifice of Amalek from under the heavens.
15. And Moses built an altar and called its name the-Lord-tested.*
16. And he said, "Behold, the hand is against the throne;* the Lord declares war on all oppressors* throughout the centuries."
17. And the king-priest of Moses saw everything that he did for the nation, and he said to him, "What is this great event that you performed for the people? Wherefore do you sit alone and the entire nation stands above you from morning until evening?"
*17:5 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Pass before the nation." *17:7 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "That if you are Lord between us, or not?"
*17:9 Lit. Aramaic: "Eashoa." Transliterated as "Joshua" in English language Bibles. The spelling in Aramaic for "Jesus" and "Joshua" is identical.
*17:13 Lit. Ar. id.: "Mouth."
*17:14 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Redeemingly redeem."
*17:15. Lit. Aramaic name: "Mar-ya-nessi."
*17:16.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Behold, the hand over the chair, war to the Lord with Amalek from our centuries."
*17:16.2 Meaning of the name "Amalek."
1. And Jethro, the king-priest of Midian, the father-in-law of Moses heard everything that God had done for Moses and his People Israel, and how He liberated the Children of Israel from Egypt.
2. And Moses' father-in-law fetched Zipporah, the wife of Moses, after he left her.
3. And his two sons, the name of the first one was Gershon, because he had said that I was a settler in a foreign land,
4. And the name of the other was Eliazar, because the God of my ancestors aided me and delivered me" from the corruption of Pharaoh.
5. And Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, together with the sons of Mose's wife, came to Moses, where he had camped out in the wilderness by the mountain of God.
6. And it was told to Moses, "Behold, your father-in-law Jethro, your wife and both your sons with him, have come to you."
7. And Moses went out to greet his father-in-law on the way; he worshipped and kissed him; everyone greeted each other with Peace and they entered the home.*
8. And Moses informed his father-in-law about everything the Lord did to the Pharaoh and the Egyptians, for the benefit of the Children of Israel, and all the deprivation they suffered on the way and how the Lord had delivered them.
9. And Jethro was happy over everything the Lord did for Israel and delivered them from the land of the Egyptians and from the land of the Pharaoh.
10. And Jethro said, "Praises be to* that Lord who delivered you from the hand of the Egyptians and from the hand of the Pharaoh who delivered His people from under the hand of the Egyptians.
11. Now you know that He is greater -- that Lord -- than all the gods, because of all the providence that He vouchsafed over them.*
12. And Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, offered the sacrificial holocausts and the communion of peace to the Lord, and there came Aaron and all the elders of the Children of Israel to eat bread with the father-in-law of Moses before God.*
13. And on the following day Moses took the seat to judge the people, and the people stood over Moses from morning till evening.
14. And the father-in-law of Moses saw all that he did for the people, and he said to him, "What is the point* of what you are doing for the people? Why do you sit alone and all the people stand over you from morning till evening?"
15. And Moses said to his father-in-law, "So as the people may come to me to ask for God's Manifestation.
16. "And when they have an argument, I judge between a man and his companion, and I show them God's commandments and his Law."
17. And the father-in-law of Moses said to him, "This is not well.*
18. "This is an imposition* upon you and your entire nation, because this is a heavy duty* and you cannot do it alone.
19. "Now listen to me,* deliver the message and God will be with you, become a teacher from God to the people, and you be [the one who] brings their case* before God.
20. "And you shall enlighten them regarding the observances of the commandments and show them the way that they are to travel and the works that they must do.
21. "And you shall elect* from all the nation men of vision that fear God, that love the truth and that hate obligatory work and treachery. And put them in charge* of [the units of] thousands, of hundreds, of fifties and of tens,
22. "And let them be the judges of the people on an ongoing basis,* and when they have major arguments let them come to you, but for smaller problems let the others judge them, and they will lessen your burden* and relieve you of it.
23. "And if you follow this process God will give you the commandments and you will be able to pass on the commandments; and this entire nation also, everyone will be able to go to their homes in peace."
24. And Moses listened* to his father-in-law and did everything that he told him.
25. And Moses selected men of vision from all of Israel and set them up as leaders* of the nation, as heads of thousands, heads of hundreds, heads of fifties and heads of tens.
26. And they became the judge for the people in all matters,* and when there was a difficult case they brought it to Moses, and the small cases they judged themselves.
27. Then* Moses sent his father-in-law off to his land.
*18:7 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And they asked each human for the peace of his companion."*18:10 Lit. Ar. id.: "Blessed is."*18:11 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Providences He provided over them."*18:12 Here clearly the words "God" and "the Lord" are used interchangeably. Read more on this in the commentaries. *18:14 Lit. Ar. id.: "This explanation," or "situation." *18:17 Lit. Ar. expression: "You do not do beautiful."*18:18.1 Lit. Ar. figure of speech: "You are dictatingly dictating."*18:18.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Argument," or "situation."*18:24 Lit. Ar. expression: "Heard the voice of..."*18:19.1 Lit. Ar. expression: "Listen to my voice."*18:19.2 Lit. Ar.: "Arguments," "complaints," or "requests."*18:21.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "See to it."*18:21.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Raise them as heads over..."*18:22.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "At all times."*18:22.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Relieve you."*18:25 Lit. Ar. expression: "Raised them as heads."*18:26 Lit. Ar. expression: "At all times."*18:27 Lit. Ar. id.: "And."
1. On the third month, after the liberation of the Children of Israel from Egypt, on that same day they came to the Desert of Sein.
2. And they took up from the Raphedein and came to the Desert of Sinai and they camped there in the desert, and there Israel rested before* the mountain.
3. And Moses climbed up toward God and God called him from the mountain, saying, "This is what you shall say to the House of Jacob and show the Children of Israel,
4. "You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, as* I took you up like on the wings of the eagle and brought you to me.
5. "Now if you truly listen* to my voice and uphold my covenant,* you shall be more beloved to me than all the nations of the earth, because this earth is mine.
6. "And you shall be for me a kingdom and high priests and a holy nation -- these are the explanations you shall give to the House of Israel."
7. Then Moses came and called on the elders of the nation and he related before them all the reasoning that the Lord commanded him to convey.*
8. And all the people replied like one and said, "We will do everything that the Lord commanded." And Moses took the nations reply* back to the Lord.
9. And the Lord said to Moses, "Behold, I come to you in a swirl of clouds, because the people have listened to what I spoke to you and they will also believe in you to the end of the universe." And Moses showed the nation's concerns* before the Lord.
10. And the Lord commanded Moses, "Go to the nation and sanctify them today and tomorrow and let them put on their white garments.*
11. "And let them be good on the third Day, because on the third Day the Lord shall descend on the that Day to all the people on the mountain of Sinai.
12. And He shall cast over the nation the testimony and command them to beware, neither to ascend the mountain, nor to come near its base.* And whoever comes close to the mountain shall die.
13. And no hand shall come near it without it being stoned* and smashed,* whether animal or human, they shall not live, and when the horn ceases to sound you may begin to climb the mountain."
14. And Moses went down from the mountain to the nation, and he blessed the people and their clothing became whitened.
15. And Moses said to the nation, "Be good until the third day; do not go near your wives."
16. And on the third day, when it was dawn, there was thunder and lightening, and a swirl of clouds came over the mountain, and the sound of the horn was powerful, and the entire nation encamped there was shaken [out of their sleep.]
17. And Moses brought out the nation on the way of God from the encampment and they stood at the hem of the mountain.
18. And the mountain of Sinai was all enveloped in smoke, because the Lord descended on it with fire, and the smoke rose like the smoke of the furnace, and the entire mountain shook indeed.
19. And the sound of the horn traveled well and caught everyone's attention,* and Moses spoke out and God replied with its sound.
20. And the Lord descended to the mountain of Sinai, at the top of the mountain, and the Lord called Moses to the top of the mountain and Moses ascended.
21. And the Lord said to Moses, "Go down and commit the people not to stray before the Lord to look, lest many of them should fall.
22. "Also the high priests that come close to the Lord should be sanctified, so as the Lord should not reprimand them."*
23. And Moses said to the Lord, "The people cannot climb the mountain of Sinai, because you committed us and commanded me to set the boundaries for the mountain and to hold it sacred."
24. And the Lord commanded him, "Go down and bring* Aaron your brother with you, and the high priests, and the people must not wander off and climb toward the Lord, so as they may not be killed.
25. And Moses went down to the people and told them.
*19:2 Lit. Ar. id.: "In front of" or "opposite." *19:4 Lit. Ar. id.: "And."
*19:5.1 Lit. Ar. figure of speech: "Listeningly listen."
*19:5.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Guarded my standing."
*19:7 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And there came Moses and called the elders of the nation and said before them all these discussions that the Lord commanded him."
*19:8 Lit. Ar. id.: "Explanations."
*19:9 Lit. Ar. id.: "Arguments," "explanations," or "discourse."
*19:10 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "And whitened their clothing."
*19:12 Lit. Ar. id.: "Hems."
*19:13 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Stoningly stoned."
*19:13.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic figure of speech: "Smashingly smashed."
*19:19 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And it was the sound of the horn went and caught well."
*19:22 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Fall under his authority."
*19:24 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Ascend you and your brother."
1. And God confirmed* the entire matter,*
2. "It is I,* your Lord God, that brought you up from the land of Egypt, from the state of slavery.*
3. "You shall not have other Gods except* for me.
4. "You shall not make* any image or likeness that is in heaven above* or that is on earth below,* or that is in the water below* the earth;
5. "You shall neither worship them, nor work for them, because it is I* that am your Lord God, the zealous God who visits the love of the parents upon the children for three generations,* and that of the hateful upon their children for four generations.
6. "And I bless my kindred* for thousands of generations* and those who guard and observe my commandments.
7. "Do not swear by the name of your Lord God falsely, because the Lord will not add to the share of those who swear by His name falsely.
8. "Remember the Sabbath Day for its holiness.
9. "You will work six days and perform all that you do,
10. "And the seventh Day is to be the Sabbath* for your Lord God; do not do any work in it, not you, your son, your daughter, your servants, your maidens, your animals and the settlers of your village,*
11. "Because the Lord created the heaven and the earth in six Days, the sea and all that is in it, and He rested on the seventh Day; that is why God blessed the seventh Day and made it holy.
12. "Honor your father and your mother and your days shall be extended upon the earth that your Lord God gives you.
13. "Do not kill.
14. "Do not fornicate.
15. "Do not steal.
16. "Do not testify regarding your companion falsely.*
17. "Do not covet your companion's house; do not covet your companion's wife, or his servants, his maidens, his oxen and his donkeys, and everything your companion has."
18. And all the people heard the thunder and saw the lightening, and heard the sound of the horn, and saw the mountain filled with smoke -- the people saw it and were afraid, as they stood from afar.*
19. And they said to Moses, "You speak to us, and we will listen; let not God speak to us, lest we die."
20. And Moses said to the nation, "Do not fear, because it is to teach;* it is for that God has come, so as His fear shall be before your faces, so as you may not sin."
21. And the people stood from afar, and Moses approached the platform where God was.
22. And the Lord said to Moses, "This is what you shall say to the House of Israel, 'You have seen that I have spoken with you from heaven;
23. " 'You shall make me neither gods of gold in your worship of me; nor shall you make gods of silver.
24. " 'Instead build me an earthen altar and sacrifice on it the excess of your bounty and your offerings, your sheep and oxen; in whatever country you remember my name I shall come to you and bless you.
25. " 'And if you build me a stone altar, do not make it with cut stone,* because iron will be forged on it and profane it.*
26. " 'And do not go up to it by steps, lest your intentions* over it should be revealed.'"*
*20:1.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Commanded." *20:1.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "Arguments," "explanations," or "events."
*20:2.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "I am I."
*20:2.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "From the house of slavery."
*20:3 Lit. Ar. id.: "Outside of..."
*20.4.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Worship," or: be enslaved to.
*20:4.2 Lit. Ar. id.: "From above."
*20:4.3 Lit. Ar. id.: "From below."
*20:4.4 Lit. Ar. id.: "From below."
*20:5.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "I am I."
*20:5.2 Lit. Ar. id.: Or: "centuries."
*20:6.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Do blessings to my merciful..."
*20:6.2 Lit. Ar. id.: Or: "centuries."
*20:10.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "Preserved."
*20:10.2 Lit. Ar. id.: Or: "your household."
*20:16 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "Do not give false testimony against your companion."
*20:18 Lit. Ar. idiomatic construction: "And the entire nation saw sounds and lampings (the lighting of the lamps) and the sounds of the horn and the mountain that smoked and the people saw and succumbed and stood from afar."
*20:20 Lit. Ar. id.: "To experience you," or "to test you."
*20:25.1 Lit. Ar. id.: "By design."
*20:25.2 So that swords wouldn't be forged on it.
*20:26.1 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: Or: "by degrees." (Possibly a reference to the creation of hierarchies of authority.)
*20:26.2 Lit. Ar. idiomatic expression: "Your participation of it." Ambition to seize authority, or monopolize the ceremony of offerings.
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